Chair and Department of  Medical Biophysics

Medical University of Silesia Katowice

 
 

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BIOPHYSICS

(4-YEAR PROGRAM, FIRST SEMESTER)

 

 

15 HOURS (LABS)

 

 

1. BIOPHYSICAL BASICS OF ELECTROTHERAPY - 2 HOURS

definitions of electric current, voltage, intensity, density, resistance (tissue impedance); impact of the electric current on human body (electrochemical effects, cathodal and anodal   events, electrophoresis, electroosmosis, electrothermal effects); direct current; alternating current; pulsed current; basic terms (waveform and time - depend parameters, frequency, current modulations); electrodes (types, size and placing); selection of various electric currents and physical quantities; calculating a frequency for different period time

 

2. USEFULNESS OF ELECTROTHERAPY IN MEDICINE - 2 HOURS

historical review of electrotherapy; trascutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; conventional TENS; acupuncture like TENS; burst TENS; brief - intense TENS; high voltage pulsed current; diadynamic currents (diphase fixe, monophase fixe, courtes periods, longues periods, rhythme syncope, monophase module); interference current; neuromuscular electrical stimulation; spasticity management NMES; orthotic substitution (gait training, idiopathic scoliosis stimulation) – FES; Kots current; electrical stimulation of denervated muscle; faradic and neofaradic current; therapeutic procedures in practical use (TENS, Kots, diadynamic and interference); use of modern electrostimulators like Astym, Asterint, Neodym, Diatronic

 

3. USEFULNESS OF ELECTRODIAGNOSTICS IN MEDICINE - 2 HOURS

electrodiagnostics (degeneration test, strenght - duration test, chronaxie and rheobase, nerve conducting tests: motor nerve conduction, f - wave nerve conduction, sensory nerve conduction, h - reflex response, electromyography); evaluation of S - D curve, chronaxie and rheobase test; use of modern electrostimulators like Astym, Asterint, Neodym, Diatronic

 

4. BIOPHYSICAL BASICS OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES - 2 HOURS

definitions of pressure and electrocardiogram, ECG; presentation of necessary physical quantities: mmHg, Pascal etc; producing of electric signals in heart muscle; biophysics of  S - A node; physiological ECG trace (detailed analyse); calculating of heart rate frequency (before and after physical effort); solving problems concerning artifacts influencing recording of ECG; practical recording of ECG; recognizing different types of connections in ECG technique; Eindhoven triangle and connections by Wilson; practical presentation of ECG recording and it’s evaluation; biophysics of circulatory system; systolic and diastolic pressure during blood flow; presentation of different types of medical manometers

 

5. BIOPHYSICAL PRINCIPLES AND USEFULNESS OF ULTRA VIOLET, INFRARED RADIATION AND SHORT WAVE DIATHERMY IN MEDICINE – 2 HOURS

heat; methods for temperature measurement; effects of heat; endogenic and egzogenic heat; thermoregulation; energy requirement of people; heat transfer; convection; radiation; evaporation; heat application in medicine (IRR, UVR, SWD) 

 

6. PHYSICAL METHODS OF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS (ULTRASONOGRAPHY) - 2 HOURS

characteristics of sound wave; infrasound, ultrasound versus audible frequencies; propagation of mechanical energy; wavelenght, frequency, speed of sound; pressure, intensity and dB Scale; production of ultrasound, piezoelectric crystal; characteristics of ultrasound beam, near and far field; interactions of ultrasound with matter - possible side effects; reflection, refraction and attenuation of ultrasound beam; types of imaging in ultrasound techniques: A mode, M mode and B mode; image quality - frequency importance; practical differentation between probes and it’s properties; Doppler frequency shift; continous Doppler operation and pulsed Doppler operation; color flow imaging operation; Doppler interpretation - importance of angle and direction of interface move; biological mechanisms and possible side effects of ultrasound

 

 

7. PHYSICAL METHODS OF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS (X - RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND MAGNETIC NUCLEAR RESONANCE) - 2 HOURS

X - ray production; biophysical properties of X - ray beam ionization; X - ray tubes and generators; basic principles of conventional X - ray imaging; multi dimensional approach in the evaluation of the organ and it’s pathology location in a human body; conventional tomography - description of technique and it’s importance in improving picture quality layers of visualization; biophysical principles of X - ray computed tomography; pixel and voxel differentiation; importance of slice thickness; X - ray transsmittion measurements, coefficient of absorption; CT numbers and Hounsfield units (HU), Hunsfield scale; linear attenuation coefficient; CT generetions and it’s influence on timing and precision of picture; helical CT scanners; radiation dose; reconstruction techniques - biophysical principles of backprojection; importance of “CT window” - benefits of CT imaging over traditional X - ray techniques; X - ray side effects - comparison between traditional radiology and computerized techniques; other digital radiology imaging techniques - digital subtraction angiography - digital processing of signal; magnetization properties; characteristics of the nucleus; characteristics of selected elements potentially useful on magnetic resonance; Larmor equation, Larmor frequency; generation and detection of MR signal (resonance and excitation, return to equilibrium); comparison between T1 and T2 relaxations; saturation effects and time of repetition; localization of MR signal (magnetic field gradients, slice select gradient, frequency gradient); MR image characteristics; MRI artifacts; motion as a patient - related artifact; MR instrumentation: permanent magnet versus superconductive wires magnet, gradient coils; biological effects of the magnetic field and contraindications for MRI

 

8. FINAL TEST - 1 HOUR

 

LITERATURE:

 

1. Patterson H., The encyclopaedia of medical imaging, Isis Medical Media 1998

2. Gersh M R, Electrotherapy in rehabilitation, CPR 1992

3. Walsh D M, Tens clinical applications and related theory, Churchil  Livingstone 1997

4. Hall J E, Adair T A, Physiology, Lippincott - Raven 1998

5. Guyton A C, Hall J E, Texbook of medical physiology, Saunders Company 1996

6. Fogiel M, The physics problem solver, REA 1992

7. Hobbie R H, Intermediate physics for medicine and biology

8. Halliday R, Walker R, Fundamentals of physics, John & Sons 2000

9. Serway R A, Physics for scientists and engineers with modern physics, Saunders College Publishing