Chair and Department of  Medical Biophysics

Medical University of Silesia Katowice

 
 

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GENERAL PHYSICS

(6-YEAR PROGRAM, SECOND SEMESTER)

 

30 HOURS (LECTURES)

 

 

1. USEFULNESS OF ELECTROTHERAPY IN MEDICINE – 2 HOURS

historical review of electrotherapy; trascutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; conventional TENS; acupuncture like TENS; burst TENS; brief - intense TENS; high voltage pulsed current; diadynamic currents (diphase fixe, monophase fixe, courtes periods, longues periods, rhythme syncope, monophase module); interference current; neuromuscular electrical stimulation; spasticity management NMES; orthotic substitution (gait training, idiopathic scoliosis stimulation) – FES; Kots current; electrical stimulation of denervated muscle; faradic and neofaradic current

 

2. BIOELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY IN BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH – 2 HOURS

living cells as an electric source; nervous system conducting; electricity in plants; electricity in bone; electric fish; electrocardiograph; electroencephalograph; electronic pacemaker; feedback; electrical safety in hospital (microshock hazards, nature of leakage current, static electricity, electrical and electronic instruments

 

3. ACOUSTICS: WAVES AND SOUND – 2 HOURS

elasticity; properties of sound; reflection and refraction; interference; diffrectation; piezoelectric effect; physics of hearing; decibel scale

 

4. SOUNDS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE – 2 HOURS

hearing testing – audiometry; bats and echoes; sounds produced by animals; clinical uses of sound

 

5. BIOPHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY – 2 HOURS

types of imaging in ultrasound techniques: A mode, M mode and B mode; image quality - frequency importance; practical differentation between probes and it’s properties; Doppler frequency shift; continous Doppler operation and pulsed Doppler operation; color flow imaging operation; Doppler interpretation - importance of angle and direction of interface move; biological mechanisms and possible side effects of ultrasound

 

6. HISTORY AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPTICS – 2 HOURS

short history of optics; basic definitions (geometric optics, Snell’s law, converging lenses, diverging lenses, lens immersed in material medium)

 

7. OPTICS – 2 HOURS

physics of vision; nature of light; refraction and lenses; image formation by eye; common vision defects; optical instruments; color vision; electromagnetic spectrum of light; quantum theory of light; interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter

 

8. PHOTOTHERAPY (PART I): ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION – 2 HOURS

historical introduction; ultra violet radiation dosimetry;  terms and units; measurement of UVR; physical detectors; spectral irradiance measurements

 

9. PHOTOTHERAPY (PART II): ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION – 2 HOURS

biological effects of UV; structure and optics of skin; effects on normal skin; photodermatoses; structure and optics of eye; effects on eye; use of UV in physiotherapy; phototherapy of psoriasis; psolaren photochemotherapy; phototherapy for neonatal jaundice; luminescence techniques in diagnosis

 

10. LASERS (PART I) – 2 HOURS

characteristics of lasers; types of lasers; biological effects of laser irradiation

 

11. LASERS (PART II) – 2 HOURS

clinical application in surgery, dermatology, gynaecology, orthopaedics, rheumatology, biostimulation

 

12. ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

scale mode of atom; nature of nucleus; spectroscopy; quantum mechanics; types of radioactivity; X-rays; radiation therapy; isotopic tracers; atomic theory and life

 

13. PHYSICAL METHODS OF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS: X - RAY COMPUTED  TOMOGRAPHY - 2 HOURS

X - ray production; biophysical properties of X - ray beam ionization; X - ray tubes and generators; basic principles of conventional X - ray imaging; multi dimensional approach in the evaluation of the organ and it’s pathology location in a human body; conventional tomography - description of technique and it’s importance in improving picture quality layers of visualization; biophysical principles of X - ray computed tomography; pixel and voxel differentiation; importance of slice thickness; X - ray transsmittion measurements, coefficient of absorption; CT numbers and Hounsfield units (HU), Hounsfield scale; linear attenuation coefficient; CT generetions and it’s influence on timing and precision of picture; helical CT scanners; radiation dose; reconstruction techniques - biophysical principles of backprojection; importance of “CT window” - benefits of CT imaging over traditional X - ray techniques; X - ray side effects - comparison between traditional radiology and computerized techniques; other digital radiology imaging techniques - digital subtraction angiography - digital processing of signal

 

14. PHYSICAL METHODS OF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS: MAGNETIC NUCLEAR  RESONANCE - 2 HOURS

characteristics of selected elements potentially useful on magnetic resonance; Larmor equation, Larmor frequency; generation and detection of MR signal (resonance and excitation, return to equilibrium); comparison between T1 and T2 relaxations; saturation effects and time of repetition; localization of MR signal (magnetic field gradients, slice select gradient, frequency gradient); MR image characteristics; MRI artifacts; motion as a patient - related artifact; MR instrumentation: permanent magnet versus superconductive wires magnet, gradient coils; biological effects of the magnetic field and contraindications for MRI

 

15. FINAL TEST – 2 HOURS

 

 

 

 

45 HOURS (LABS )- PRACTICAL EXERCISES

  

1. ELECTROTHERAPY: PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT – 3 HOURS

2. ELECTROTHERAPY: ELECTRODIAGNOSTICS – 3 HOURS

3. ELECTROTHERAPY: TREATMENT – 3 HOURS

4. ELECTROTHERAPY: TREATMENT – 3 HOURS

5. TEST – 3 HOURS

6. BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT – 3 HOURS

7. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY – 3 HOURS

8. SHORTWAVE DIATHERMY AND INFRA RED RADIATION – 3 HOURS

9. OPTICS AND ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION – 3 HOURS

10. TEST – 3 HOURS

11. MECHANICAL WAVES IN MEDICINE: AQUAVIBRON MASSAGE – 3  HOURS

12. ACOUSTICS – 3 HOURS

13. SURFACE TENSION MEASUREMENT – 3 HOURS

14. PHYSICAL METHODS OF IMAGING: USG, CT, NMR – 3 HOURS

15. TEST – 3 HOURS

 

 

 

 

LITERATURE:

 

1.      Nave C. R.: Physics for the health sciences.  W B Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985

2.      Fogiel M.: The physics problem solver. REA, 1992

3.      McAnish T. F.: Physics in medicine and biology encyclopedia: medical physics, bioengineering and biophysics. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1986

4.      Halliday R., Walker R.: Fundamentals of physics. John & Sons,

5.      Davidovits P.: Physics in biology and medicine. Academic Press, San Diego, 2001